Humanism — a history of the hijacked Credo of our species Jul 3rd, By admin Category:
Music resounded in old forms (ballad, virelay) even while becoming more articulate or flamboyant; Guillaume de Machaut (died ), the great musician-poet of the midth century, composed the first polyphonic mass as well as many motets and secular lyrics. Sep 21, · Humanism, system of education and mode of inquiry that originated in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England. The term is alternatively applied to a variety of Western beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm. Philosophy Of Religions Essay Examples. The Influence of the Developments from the 14th Century Crises and Humanism in the Points of Thomas More in Utopia. 1, words. The Theories of Thomas Aquinas on the Four Kinds of Laws: Eternal, Natural, Human and Divine. 2, words.
Italy in the Mid-Fourteenth Century: Commerce enriched and empowered regions in which the feudal system had not taken a strong hold, especially in northern Italy.
The most prosperous of these cities—Florence, Venice, and Milan—became powerful city-states, ruling the regions surrounding them. Further south, the Papal States, centered in Rome, gradually grew to rival the wealth of the northern cities, and as the seat of the papacy, exerted a tremendous influence over Italian life and politics.
Along with a few other minor centers of wealth and power, including Urbino, Mantua, and Ferrara, these four regions became the cradle of the Renaissance, beginning in the fourteenth century to undergo political, economic, and artistic changes.
The beginning of the Renaissance in the mid-fourteenth century was marked by a turn from medieval life and values dominated by the Church toward the philosophical principles of humanism. The Italian people, especially the educated middle class, became interested in individual achievement and emphasized life in this world, as opposed to preparation for life in the next world, which was stressed by religion.
They believed strongly in the potential for individual accomplishment in the arts, literature, politics, and personal life.
Individuals began to be encouraged to excel in a wide range of fields and showcase their talents. Renaissance thinkers decried medieval life as primitive and backwards, and looked further back in history, to the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans, for inspiration.
One of the earliest and most prominent humanist writers was Francesco Petrarch, often known as the founder of humanism. Many historians cite April 6,the date on which Petrarch was crowned Poet Laureate upon the Capitol in Rome, as the true beginning of the Renaissance.
Petrarch believed that true eloquence and ethical wisdom had been lost during the Middle Ages, and could only be found by looking to the writings of the ancients, especially Virgil and Cicero. Petrarch wrote extensively, producing poetry, biographies of historical figures, and wrote scores of letters, many of which were eventually published and widely read.
One of his most popular letters, "The Ascent of Mount Vertoux," describes his journey to the summit of a mountain, but more importantly, it is an allegory comparing the hardships of the climb to the struggle to attain true Christian virtue.
Commentary Geography, more than anything else, gave Italy an advantage over northern Europe in regard to potential for amassing wealth and breaking free from the feudal system. Jutting into the Mediterranean Sea, and strategically located between the majority of Europe and the Byzantine Empire, Italian cities had almost no choice but to participate in international trade and the market economy, and to integrate the activities of commerce into daily life.
In this way, Italy became exposed to the large-scale flow of both goods and ideas much earlier than most other regions in Europe.
Thus, during the later years of the Middle Ages, northern Italy flourished economically and intellectually. Further, because Italy's maintained its market economy while the rest of Europe developed a self- contained barter economy of feudal territories spawned by agrarian life, feudalism did not take hold in northern Italy as it did elsewhere in Europe.
In both society and mind, it can be argued, northern Italy was more sophisticated and freer than the rest of Europe. The history and ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans, cast into shadow throughout Europe in medieval times, had perhaps remained closer to the surface of contemporary thought in Italy than elsewhere, due to the geographical location of the Italian city-states, which had been built basically on top of the ruins of the Roman Empire.
However, this geographical proximity should not be overstated. Even in the city of Rome, the buildings of the empire had fallen into ruin, and many were covered by centuries of waste and overgrowth. It seems unlikely, but even the citizens of Rome who lived in the shadow of the Coliseum and the Pantheon had little sense and less reverence for the history around them during the Middle Ages.
The Greek influence on the cities of northern Italy was maintained by the trade with the Byzantine Empire, which had as its byproduct the flow of ideas and history.
The Greek influence grew throughout the late fourteenth century and into the fifteenth, as the Ottoman Turks increasingly threatened Constantinople, the center of the Byzantine Empire, which finally fell in Many Italian and Greek contemporaries commented that it seemed Constantinople had not fallen at all, but simply been transplanted to Florence.In the 16th century, humanism’s political assumptions spread north and were further developed by Christian humanists such as Thomas More and Erasmus.
Initially an Italian phenomenon, humanism became an important aspect of western European political culture concurrent with the 16th-century . Start studying Artistic and Intellectual Developments in the 14th century.
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Humanism is the term applied to the predominant ntellectual and literary currents of the period to The return to favor of the classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and individual expression.
The period from the 14th century to the 17th worked in favor of the general emancipation. The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from to AD.
Despite the crises, the 14th century was also a time of great progress in the arts and sciences. The most important developments, however, came in 15th-century Florence.
The affluence of the merchant class allowed extensive. The two most prominent critiques of church power in the 14th century were by Dante in his Aristotelian De monarchia and by By the end of the 20th century, however, humanism was such a lost art as to have to be reassembled, like a disjointed skeleton, by careful historians.
crises, sources, and influences obscure the even more important. The Influence of the Developments from the 14th Century Crises and Humanism in the Points of Thomas More in Utopia ( words, 4 pages) Some people may think Mores points about Utopia are from The Rule of Saint Benedict because this book greatly affect the period of medieval.