Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here.
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Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Summary: This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation.
These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.
This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts. Notes and Bibliography NB in Chicago style The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages.
It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history. The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others.
Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material. Introduction to Notes In the NB system, you should include a note endnote or footnote each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary.
Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.
In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced. If a work includes a bibliography, which is typically preferred, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes.
If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title if more than four wordsand page number s. However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.
In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space. Introduction to Bibliographies In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work.
This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index. It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading. Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources books, articles, websites, etc.
If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used. Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in the notes. Common Elements All entries in the bibliography will include the author or editor, compiler, translatortitle, and publication information.
If an author is not listed first, this principle applies to compilers, translators, etc. Titles Titles of books and journals are italicized.
Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. Publication Information The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name. Punctuation In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.
Please note that this OWL resource provides basic information regarding the formatting of entries used in the bibliography.Quick guides to the most commonly used citation styles with links to examples of subject specific styles.
Writing - Sample Footnotes in MLA Style.
How to Do Footnotes. Footnotes are powerful tools, they are used to provide ancillary information and also citations in the footer of a page.
Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA. SAMPLE CHICAGO STYLE PAPER John Doe History Dr. Johnson July 11, Doe 1 Specific guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago Style are outlined in manuals such as the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September , and the 7th edition of A Pocket Guide to Writing in History by Mary Lynn Rampolla.
1 THE CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE RESEARCH PAPER Some important aspects of the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) are exemplified in the following sample pages of a student’s research paper. The CMS style is often required for research papers in history and for instructors who favor this style in .
A Chicago style paper is an academic paper written and formatted according to The Chicago Manual of Style (also commonly referred to as CMS or CMOS). This manual was originally developed at the University of Chicago and first published back in