The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that "peace" seems to be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and are predictably superficial.
Cooperation Summary Humans, like all animals, form cooperative groups to compete for limited resources. All life is ultimately competitive, because the natural tendency of any population is to explode, although it is kept in check by the limited food supply and other factors.
Because there are more animals than food, animals must compete to survive. In situations where the food supply is somehow sufficient, deadly competition falls.
Liberals therefore advocate the creation of a sustainable economy, where the population is kept constant through birth control and resources are used no faster than they can be replaced. The result will be a more cooperative and civil society. Argument In the debate over what type of society is best, conservatives generally favor more competitive societies, whereas liberals favor more cooperative ones.
Let's attempt to see which side is correct, by reviewing the fundamentals of competition and cooperation: The origins of competition Perhaps the first thing to note is that all life is ultimately competitive. For many centuries, biologists have known that the natural tendency of the animal population is to explode, but the limited food supply keeps it in check.
There are also other limiting factors, like space, climate, resources, etc. Because there are more creatures than food, this means that some will starve to death. Thus, in order to survive, animals must compete for food, killing each other if need be.
It's implications, however, have been deeply controversial. The 18th century economist Thomas Malthus argued that giving more food to the poor was self-defeating, since it would only expand their population and create more of the same hunger and misery that welfare was designed to alleviate.
Malthus therefore argued that welfare programs should be halted.
Malthus' proposal sparked a bitter political debate -- the poor charged that he was heartless, while the rich congratulated him for applying science to the issue of welfare.
Interestingly, the controversy itself was indicative of the class warfare that rages for society's limited resources. Likewise, Charles Darwin found the concept of deadly competition important for developing his theories of natural selection and survival of the fittest.
Darwin theorized that if animals must compete to survive, then the winners would be those with the strongest traits, which would then be passed on to their offspring.
Meanwhile, those with weaker traits would be killed before they could breed, and would be dropped from the gene pool. It is important to note that even if you don't believe in evolution, natural selection indisputably occurs in all other competitive systems.
These range from individual firms competing on the free market to individual workers competing for job promotions. Indeed, the fact that natural selection occurs everywhere else is a strong argument that it occurs in biology as well. Natural selection has developed in humans a natural desire to compete.
Those with non-competitive natures would have lost their struggle for survival, and disappeared from the gene pool a long time ago. On the other hand, those with an overly intense desire to compete would have become dead heroes, and likewise failed to pass on their traits.Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America.
Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
Youth for Human Rights International launched its global movement with an essay contest. The response to the call for essays describing the individual human rights was widespread and enthusiastic and brought attention to our organization with the goal of a world of cooperation and peace through human rights education.
On 10 December, UN Human Rights will observe Human Rights Day by kicking-off a campaign to celebrate the 70th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
The year-long initiative will provide an opportunity to promote, engage with and reflect on the Declaration and its relevance in everyday life. Oxfam and the Tax Justice Network have joined together to launch a tax justice and human rights essay competition for legal students and professionals.
With tax justice rising up the human rights agenda, we wanted to hear your ideas on how human rights law can be used in the fight against tax dodging. Publisher of books, continuing education courses and journals for Fitness, Exercise, Coaching and Sport.
Competitions. The Australian Human Rights Commission regularly conducts competitions based around human rights themes and social issues. Past competitions.