Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The fragmentation and loss of central authority could not have come at a worse time, with the Mongol Empire invading and wreaking havoc on the realm repeatedly in, and lastly between
In the s and s, the initial success of Solidarity in particular, and of dissident movements in general, was fed by a deepening crisis within Soviet-influenced societies.
There was declining morale, worsening economic conditions a shortage economyand growing stress from the Cold War. A year later, during his first pilgrimage to Poland, his masses were attended by hundreds of thousands of his countrymen.
The Pope called for the respecting of national and religious traditions and advocated for freedom and human rights, while An overview of the solidarity movement in poland violence.
To many Poles, he represented a spiritual and moral force that could be set against brute material forces, he was a bellwether of change, and became an important symbol—and supporter—of changes to come. At once there ensued a wave of strikes and factory occupations with the biggest strikes taking place in the area of Lublin.
Although the strike movement had no coordinating center, the workers had developed an information network to spread news of their struggle. In addition, they called for the raising of a monument to the shipyard workers who had been killed in and for the legalization of independent trade unions.
The list went beyond purely local matters, beginning with a demand for new, independent trade unions and going on to call for a relaxation of the censorshipa right to strike, new rights for the Church, the freeing of political prisoners, and improvements in the national health service.
A tidal wave of strikes swept the coast, closing ports and bringing the economy to a halt. With KOR assistance and support from many intellectuals, workers occupying factories, mines and shipyards across Poland joined forces.
Within days, over factories and enterprises had joined the strike committee. More and more new unions were formed, and joined the federation. Blank spaces remain after the government censor has pulled articles from page 1 right, "What happened at Bydgoszcz?
The printers— Solidarity-trade-union members—have decided to run the newspaper as is, with blank spaces intact. The bottom of page 1 of this master copy bears the hand-written Solidarity confirmation of that decision. Meanwhile, Solidarity had been transforming itself from a trade union into a social movement  or more specifically, a revolutionary movement.
Using strikes and other protest actions, Solidarity sought to force a change in government policies. At the same time, it was careful never to use force or violence, so as to avoid giving the government any excuse to bring security forces into play.
The atmosphere was increasingly tense, with various local chapters conducting a growing number of uncoordinated strikes as well as street protests, such as the Summer hunger demonstrations in Polandin response to the worsening economic situation. Martial law — [ edit ] Further information: Wojciech Jaruzelskiwho adopted a strong-arm policy.
One of the largest demonstrations, on December 16,took place at the Wujek Coal Minewhere government forces opened fire on demonstrators, killing 9  and seriously injuring By December 28,strikes had ceased, and Solidarity appeared crippled. It was the longest underground strike in the history of Poland, lasting 14 days.
Some miners began it on December 14, going meters underground. Out of the initialhalf remained until the last day.
Starving, they gave up after military authorities promised they would not be prosecuted. Yet Solidarity was far from broken: Two days later, two additional demonstrators were killed in Warsaw.
On July 22,martial law was lifted, and amnesty was granted to many imprisoned Solidarity members, who were released. The government attempted to smooth over the situation by releasing thousands of political prisoners ;  a year later, however, there followed a new wave of arrests.
The worsening economic situation in the entire Eastern Bloc, including the Soviet Union, together with other factors, forced Gorbachev to carry out a number of reforms, not only in the field of economics uskoreniye but in the political and social realms glasnost and perestroika. Nonetheless, Solidarity members and activists continued to be persecuted and discriminated, if less so than during the early s.
Polish exports were low, both because of the sanctions and because the goods were as unattractive abroad as they were at home. Foreign debt and inflation mounted. There were no funds to modernize factories, and the promised " market socialism " materialized as a shortage economy characterized by long queues and empty shelves.
It comprised several sections, each responsible for presenting a specific aspect of opposition demands to the government. The Communists, led by Gen.
Jaruzelski, hoped to co-opt prominent opposition leaders into the ruling group without making major changes in the structure of political power. Solidarity, while hopeful, did not anticipate major changes.
In fact, the talks would radically alter the shape of the Polish government and society. Despite its shortage of resources, Solidarity managed to carry on an electoral campaign. Bush right and Barbara Bush left in Warsaw, July Pre-election public-opinion polls had promised victory to the communists.Shortly after the rise of Solidarity, the organization expanded into a larger social movement, appealing for economic reforms, free elections, and increased political participation of trade unions.
It was the end of the communist governmental system in Poland. Into the s, Solidarity gradually lost its influence as a political party, but. The Occupy movement was an international progressive, socio-political movement against social and economic inequality and the lack of "real democracy" around the urbanagricultureinitiative.com aimed primarily to advance social and economic justice and new forms of democracy.
The movement had many different scopes; local groups often had different focuses, but among the movement's prime concerns were how large. Poland’s Solidarity Movement () Maciej Bartkowski After a brief overview of Polish politics from , Bartkowski details the formation and actions of the Polish “Solidarity” movement from —resulting in the historic election and Poland’s first non-Communist Prime Minister.
Overview. Solidarity: The Analysis of a Social Movement: Poland, This book records a fascinating analysis of the Solidarity movement in Poland.
Alain Touraine here proposes an understanding of the place of social movements in contemporary society, and a fresh means of analysing them through 'sociological intervention'. Price: $ Back to Civilization V Go to the list of leaders A civilization is a specific historical nation, which represents a player in the game.
Each player adopts a single civilization at the setup of each game. Civilization Unique Features Besides the name, history and leader, every civilization has a. Updated world stock indexes. Get an overview of major world indexes, current values and stock market data.