Fagan Pennsylvania State University Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated.
Stone[ edit ] Marble is not found especially close to Rome, and was only rarely used there before Augustuswho famously boasted that he had found Rome made of brick and left it made of marble, though this was mainly as a facing for brick or concrete.
From Augustus' reign the quarries at Carrara were extensively developed for the capital, and other sources around the empire exploited,  especially the prestigious Greek marbles like Parian.
Travertine limestone was found much closer, around Tivoliand was used from the end of the Republic; the Colosseum is mainly built of this stone, which has good load-bearing capacity, with a brick core. Imports from Greece for this purpose began in the 2nd century BC. Roman brick Close-up view of the wall of the Roman shore fort at Burgh CastleNorfolk, showing alternating courses of flint and brickwork.
The Romans made fired clay bricks from about the beginning of the Empire, replacing earlier sun-dried mud-brick. Roman brick was almost invariably of a lesser height than modern brick, but was made in a variety of different shapes and sizes.
Other brick sizes in ancient Rome included 24" x 12" x 4", and 15" x 8" x 10". Ancient Roman bricks found in France measured 8" x 8" x 3". The Romans perfected brick-making during the first century of their empire and used it ubiquitously, in public and private construction alike.
The Romans took their brickmaking skills everywhere they went, introducing the craft to the local populations. The use of bricks in southern and western Germanyfor example, can be traced back to traditions already described by the Roman architect Vitruvius. In the British Islesthe introduction of Roman brick by the ancient Romans was followed by a — year gap in major brick production.
Roman concrete[ edit ] Example of opus caementicium on a tomb on the ancient Appian Way in Rome. The original covering has been removed. Roman concrete Concrete quickly supplanted brick as the primary building material,[ citation needed ] and more daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes rather than dense lines of columns suspending flat architraves.
The freedom of concrete also inspired the colonnade screen, a row of purely decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concrete's strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment.
Although concrete had been used on a minor scale in Mesopotamia, Roman architects perfected Roman concrete and used it in buildings where it could stand on its own and support a great deal of weight. The first use of concrete by the Romans was in the town of Cosa sometime after BC.
Ancient Roman concrete was a mixture of lime mortaraggregate, pozzolanawater, and stonesand was stronger than previously-used concretes. The ancient builders placed these ingredients in wooden frames where they hardened and bonded to a facing of stones or more frequently bricks.
The aggregates used were often much larger than in modern concrete, amounting to rubble. When the framework was removed, the new wall was very strong, with a rough surface of bricks or stones. This surface could be smoothed and faced with an attractive stucco or thin panels of marble or other coloured stones called revetment.
Concrete construction proved to be more flexible and less costly than building solid stone buildings.
The materials were readily available and not difficult to transport. The wooden frames could be used more than once, allowing builders to work quickly and efficiently.
Concrete is arguably the Roman contribution most relevant to modern architecture.The Roman Architectural Revolution, also known as the Concrete Revolution, was the widespread use in Roman architecture of the previously little-used architectural forms of the arch, vault, and urbanagricultureinitiative.com the first time in history, their potential was fully exploited in the construction of a wide range of civil engineering structures, public buildings, and military facilities.
THE IMPERIAL CULT DURING THE REIGN OF NERO CLAUDIUS CAESAR (AD ) BARBOŞ Andreea-Raluca Abstract. Contemptuous towards everything that was moral and attempting to implement to the Roman citizens a new mentality, the imperial mission.
A minute analysis of Nero’s behaviour, under the Apollonian protection, . 3. As we have already noted, the regions that comprised these classic empires, including the Roman empire, were so different that they had to be united by forces, and the imperial governments kept them by establishing and maintaining common institutions throughout their lands.
In his study of the Greek cults of the Roman emperor in Asia minor, Simon Price attempts to discover why the Roman Emperor was treated like a god.
He contends that ever since the emergence of Christianity within the Roman Empire the problem has been misinterpreted; a Christianizing distinction between religion and politics has led to the 3/5(1).
The Roman Imperial Cult and the Question of Power. spoke of a ‘tour de force in historical analysis The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia.
Minor. After more than a century of debate about the significance of imperial cults for the interpretation of Revelation, this is the first study to examine both the archaeological .