The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesarwho referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germaniathus distinguishing it from Gaul Francewhich he had conquered. In the Late Middle Agesthe regional dukes, princes and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church afteras the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained as the Catholics. The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War —which was ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts.
Germany in the 19th Century Timeline created by Brodery Jun 18, The Congress of Vienna In the reorganisation of Europe after the defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna confirmed a confederation of 39 German states comprising free cities, duchies, princely territories as well as the larger kingdoms of Prussia and Bravaria all under the presidency of Austria.
In these German states the forces of conservatism dominated and it was claimed that "legitimate" governments had been rightfully 19th century germany after the Napoleonic disruption.
Sep 20, The Carlsbad Decrees The Carlsbad Decrees were a series of restrictive laws in the German states agreed to by the representatives of the German princes meeting at the town of Carlsbad. The decrees repressed political protest through: In18 states joined together in a customs union under Prussian leadership.
Austria was not a member of the customs union and her non-participation eventually pushed her to the fringe of German economic life. Mar 19, Following revolutions in France February and Vienna March there were uprising in German states as the middle and working class demanded reforms.
Poor harvests in Europe caused food shortages and a downturn in the economy increased unemployment in the cities. All this contributed to political unrest. Under pressure from a revolutionary mob in Berlin the Prussian king, William IV, promised to grant a constitution and to merge Prussia into a new Germany.
Debates about the possible inclusion of Austria in the new Germany, the nature of the future constitution and the choice of a monarch continued intobut there was little agreement. The assembly was powerless.
It had no troops and had no way of enforcing its decisions.
Sep 23, Appointment of Bismarck as Prussian chancellor King Willian I of Prussia, faced with parliamentary opposition to his plans to expand the Prussian army, appointed Otto von Bismarck as his chancellor. Bismarck was determined that the army reforms would go ahead, for he believed that the major foreign affairs issue of the day were to be decided by military means.
This was won by Austria and Prussia who thereafter administered the territories jointly. This was the second military conflict as resuly of the Schleswig-Holstein dispute.
The Confederation consisted of 22 states under Prussian leadership.
It also set up a north German Reichstag a parliament with the vote for all adult males. It also effectively excluded Austria from German affairs. Austria was effectively excluded from German affairs. This war was also known as "the seven weeks war".
Jul 19, The Franco-Prussian War Fearing attack accross Alsace and through the Black Forest region the predominantly Catholic south German states willingly joined with the predominantly Protestant Prussians in a war against the French. The war ended in May 10, In he therefore institued a policy of "cultural struggle" Kulturkampf to bring the Catholic church in Germany under state control.
By late s most of the repressive lwas had been withdrawn, however, Bismarck still claimed it to have been broadly succesful.
At this time the city of Paris was still under siege.
The victory reinforced the role of the military in Prussian society and encouraged militarism. Even the Liberals voted to give his actions legality. Crowned inhe dismissd the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck in 19th Century German History.
The German imperial coat of arms. Revolution in Nineteenth Century Germany () 5: Rise and Fall of a New Empire () 6: Conclusion.
Bibliography. That was the advice of just one of hundreds of anonymous cowboys of the 19th century. While many of us are familiar with romanticized cowboys such. the same time, connections with Germany became much closer, and from the mids Swedish politics were influenced by a close friendship with Germany, which was emphasized during the last years of the 19th century by the growing fear of Russia.
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