Workers' compensation systems were devised during the early s. Children were often forced to work long hours in back breaking jobs. The 20th Century saw a movement to outlaw child labor. Their company employed Jewish immigrants who worked in sweatshop conditions.
Bibliography Introduction Mexicans have lived in the Pacific Northwest since the s.
They continued to come to the region for mining and ranching opportunities through the latter half of the nineteenth century. In the first two decades of the twentieth century, political and economic conditions in Mexico that resulted from revolution and the repressive policies of President Porfirio Diaz pushed many out of Mexico to go north.
Agricultural and railroad expansion and labor shortages in the United States also pulled thousands of Mexicans from their homeland to the Southwest and to other regions of the United States. Mexican American communities in the Columbia River Basin began to grow dramatically beginning in the early s.
In the last three decades of the twentieth century, a new migration wave from Mexico brought thousands more to the region who joined their predecessors and helped create vibrant communities.
Today Mexican Americans populate urban areas as well, as significant numbers have chosen to settle in Portland, Spokane, and Boise, and are counted among thepeople of Mexican origin enumerated by the Census of in the states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Early Migrants and Settlers: Miners, Packers and Vaqueros Some of the earliest Mexican migrants in the Columbia River Basin were mule packers, miners, and vaqueros cowboys.
Mexican mule packers were the descendants of generations of Spanish-Mexicans who learned their trade in Mexico, the Southwest, and California and moved supplies of all types from distribution points in northern California to areas as far north as the Illinois Valley in Oregon.
Mexican miners worked the placers in the hills near Idaho City, and in the late s Manuel Fontez discovered rich quartz veins in the Salmon River Mountains between the middle and south forks.
Like their mule-packer cultural siblings, Mexican vaqueros learned their trade centuries before in the ranchos of Spanish and Mexican California and Texas. They developed their skills in horsemanship and in the various tasks required to tend cattle herds.
They brought their talents to Idaho and Oregon in the early s and trained young Anglos aspiring to become cowboys. Several of these men who worked with Devine until the turn of the century became some of the earliest Mexican American settlers in the Pacific Northwest.
Vaqueros from Texas and from California also distinguished themselves in Idaho as they did in Oregon. Joseph Amera acquired land and stock of his own and raised thousands of cattle near White Bird, and Guadalupe Valdez worked cattle in south central Idaho. Railroad and Migrant Workers The story of Mexican Americans in the Pacific Northwest in the twentieth century is closely related to the development of the railroads and irrigated agriculture.
Revolution and the resulting chaotic economic conditions in Mexico caused hundreds of thousands of Mexicans to enter the United States in the years from to the outbreak of the Great Depression in As demand for labor increased, recruiters for the railroad companies and agriculture fanned out to the southwestern states and border cities in northern Mexico and enlisted many Mexicans eager to find work and a better life in the United States.
Thousands of migrant workers from Mexico and the Southwest also came to the Columbia River Basin in response to aggressive recruitment of sugar companies and farmers. Others made it to Idaho, Oregon, and Washington on their own as word of work opportunities traveled through kinship networks.
Her family moved to Idaho in and settled near Idaho Falls to work on farms. The Great Depression dramatically slowed Mexican migration to the region but did not stop it completely. Agricultural production expanded with the advent of World War II, and the demand for labor increased again.
Recruiters sought Mexicans and Mexican Americans in northern Mexico and the Southwest, who responded by the thousands and came to toil in the fields and orchards of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington.
This time the federal government also joined the effort by entering into an agreement with Mexico to import Mexican contract workers, who became known as braceros, to harvest the crops in the Pacific Northwest and other regions of the country.
Mexican Americans continued to migrate to the region.The Growth of America. Between and , the population of the United States more than doubled to nearly 10 million people.
Remarkably, this growth was almost entirely the result of reproduction, as the immigration rate during that period had slowed to a trickle. Module Two Exam FLVS US History.
Which word describes the role Henry Flager played in the growth of Florida in the late s? (8 points) developer. What was the main benefit of scientific management? (8 points) In which of the following ways was the labor movement successful during the late 19th century?
- American Labor Movement: Development of Unions The American Labor Movement of the nineteenth century developed as a result of the city-wide organizations that unhappy workers were establishing.
These men and women were determined to receive the rights and privileges they deserved as citizens of a free country. There are a number of factors that contribute to the growth of American labor movement.
Some of them are dismemberment, increased mechanization and safety regulation. What factor in the s. One of the major factors in the s that contributed to the growth of the American labor movement was the fact that in the majority of occupations there was very unsafe working conditions.
Which factor contributed most to the beginning of the women's rights movement in the United States during the mids? -a dramatic increase in women's participation in the workforce -a shift in social attitudes brought on my increased sectional How did the consumer economy in the late s effect American life?
Labor movement B.